Five takeaways from Keysight’s 5G Tech Connect conference

Last week, I had the opportunity to attend Keysight’s 5G Tech Connect conference near San Francisco. It was a private one-day event that included many 5G thought leaders. The speakers and panel participants ranged from researchers to service providers, who provided insight into the issues presented by 5G.

The issues were oriented towards the development and testing challenges, but also included some interesting applications. There was a room nearby with Keysight test equipment, but it was far from a sales event. In fact, Roger Nichols (Keysight 5G Program Manager and the event host) promised to boot out anyone filling out a lead form. Many of the new test products shown are still under wraps, you’ll have to wait until 2018 to hear about them. But, the discussions were riveting, and the small crowd of about 200 allowed full audience participation.

Given that, here are my top five takeaways about 5G.

Over the air testing becomes essential
For years, the cellular industry has relied on conducted measurements to validate RF parameters in devices and base stations. 5G mmWave will end that. There won’t be any connectors because phased array antennas span a device. Instead of conducted power, Equivalent Isotropically Radiated Power (EIRP) becomes the key specification. EIRP is essentially the transmitter power multiplied by the antenna gain compared to an isotropic antenna. Measuring EIRP typically requires a far-field anechoic chamber (Figure 1).

Figure 1 For R&D testing in a typical far-field anechoic chamber, the device-under-test (DUT) is mounted on a positioner that rotates in two planes. But how feasible is this in the manufacturing environment? Note that shorter wavelengths lengthen the size of the chamber due to the formula above. Image courtesy of Keysight Technologies.

OTA will impact the entire testing chain, not only how test is performed, but where as well. R&D may be able to afford far-field anechoic chambers for development, but people in the manufacturing supply chain will have to think this through. Test every device in an anechoic chamber? Go to near-field testing to reduce chamber size? Drive six-sigma quality through the supply chain, and merely test of the final device functions? All these options were discussed during the conference. Lucas Hansen, Senior Director for Chipset and Component Testing at Keysight, opined that the first manufacturing runs would require some anechoic testing. Later, devices would deploy self-testing or DUT-assisted testing techniques to eliminate this requirement.

Is this feasible? Perhaps. Dr. Gabriel Rebeiz showed the results of phased-array antennas “built like digital boards” at UC San Diego (Figure 2). Solder in the components and go. They delivered impressive performance and repeatability, even without calibration. He emphasized how modern foundries and manufacturing methods have “made phased-array easy” and noted that one particularly impressive array was created by just two students. Students, he reminded us, have other priorities on campus, often social, yet still pulled this off.

Figure 2 This 64-element phased-array antennas developed at UC San Diego showed results showed high performance and repeatability, even without calibration. Image courtesy of Keysight Technologies.

R&D plays a proportionally bigger role
Beamforming adds a great deal of complexity to 5G. It’s not just the physical characterization of the devices, or the measurement of the beam patterns—it’s the entire set of protocols to even know where to aim the beam. Moray Rumney, Keysight’s representative on the 3GPP radio committee, walked us through the ladder diagram of how a device is bonded to a base station while both units are aligning their beams. Will it work? Maybe. Fixed Wireless Access (FWA) will be easier as both devices are essentially motionless. Mobile communications is, however, much harder. These tests are all in the R&D area. Once the beamforming algorithms are developed, there is no manufacturing test.

Low latency testing is another R&D-centric test. 5G includes a specific use case called Ultra-Reliable Low Latency Communication (URLLC), which promises to enable safety-critical applications such as remote surgery or autonomous vehicles. The one-millisecond latency goal is needed for enabling any application that requires tactile feedback.

Shown at the conference, and announced this week is the Keysight UXM 5G wireless test platform (Figure 3), which performs beamforming algorithms and latency tests. It is essentially a network emulator for device software testing. While the UXM isn’t new, up until now it tested devices to the Verizon pre-5G Technical Forum (5GTF) specifications. This week, Keysight announced that the New radio (NR) specifications have been incorporated into the tester, matching the long-term 5G radio specifications.

Figure 3 Keysight unveiled the UXM 5G wireless test platform. The UXM now supports the NR waveforms and tests for Advanced channel bandwidth, beamforming, latency, 8CC aggregation, and a comprehensive set of L1/L2 actions. Photo by Martin Rowe.

The silicon wild card
Can silicon be effective at mmWave frequencies? Will silicon’s lower efficiency eliminate it for power amp applications?

The pre-event dinner featured a keynote by Maryam Rofougaran, Co-CEO and COO at Movandi Corporation. Rofougaran led us through her history of designing silicon RF devices that had previously been thought of as impossible. After her first start-up Innovent Systems was acquired by Broadcom, she was promoted to senior VP of Radio Engineering, and led a worldwide team of more than 300 engineers at Broadcom developing wireless radios for combination chips. She and her brother recently cofounded Movandi to create high performance mmWave devices using low cost bulk CMOS processes. Movandi recently announced the BeamX, a complete 28 GHz front end module, from the phased-array antenna to the baseband interface. Movandi seeks to deliver 4.5 db better link budgets while consuming 30 percent less transmit power (Figure 4).

Figure 4 The original Movandi BeamX prototype is a 64-element phased array antenna based on bulk CMOS processes. Image courtesy of Movandi Corporation.

The jury is still out on silicon versus III-V processes, but it is clear silicon is making gains.

Wait for mobility
Beamforming is hard. Beamforming with a quickly moving object at mmWave frequencies is even harder. I’m sure it will be solved (see my next takeaway), but fixed beamforming will be solved first, and will be an industry-wide learning experience. A year and a half ago I predicted that fixed wireless access would be the first 5G killer application. It’s the combination of lower degree of difficulty and known business opportunity that keeps me sticking with this prediction. Verizon has already announced its intent to do exactly that in 2018.

Figure 5 Delivering fixed broadband using wireless technology will be Verizon’s first commercial deployment of 5G technology. Image courtesy of Verizon.

There are a number of unknowns that will need to become “knowns” for mmWave mobile to work. Beamforming at speed, over-the-air performance and testing, and finally what business model and applications can justify billion dollar investments in mobile remain challenges. If 5G mobile is deployed this decade, expect it to be in the sub-6GHz spectrum using massive MIMO.

Massive innovation
5G represents the most disruptive generational change in cellular networks since the movement to digital. Everything is hard- higher frequencies, ill-behaved propagation, beamforming, and over-the-air testing. We don’t even know what we don’t know yet.

That said, the pace of 5G innovation is simply breathtaking. Whether the business case demands this or not, an ecosystem ranging from academia to component suppliers to carriers has emerged with giant investments behind them all. Perhaps it’s the fear of being left out. Like a western town in the late 1800s, the players feel compelled to belly up to the bar and place their pistols on the counter. The conference ended with a talk by Dr. Mischa Dohler, from King’s College London and head of the Centre for Telecommunications Research. It was an inspiring talk where Dohler led us through new applications being conceived and prototyped through his research. While Industry 4.0 empowers robots, he has dubbed Human 4.0 for empowering humans. Remote stroke detection in ambulances, exoskeletons training new surgeons from a master, and remote practice of the performing arts were just some of the examples he presented.

Figure 6 With 5G communications, a surgeon could wear a sensing glove while performing remote surgery. Image courtesy of Ericsson.

Figure 6 With 5G communications, a surgeon could wear a sensing glove while performing remote surgery. Image courtesy of Ericsson.

Empowering humans, indeed.

Author: Larry Desjardin served in several R&D and executive management positions with Hewlett-Packard and Agilent Technologies.

Posted in LTE

Beamforming to Expand 4G and 5G Network Capacities

Most wireless subscribers believe all is well with their network coverage. The wireless industry knows the future tells a different story. 4G LTE has reached the theoretical limits of time and frequency resource utilization, while 5G will need new technology to meet its full potential.

The wireless industry is working feverishly to open a new degree of freedom and space for enhancing network capacity and performance to address growing connectivity demands. Engineers are looking at spatial dimension innovations, falling under the category of space division multiple access (SDMA), that will help deliver significant network capacity and performance.

Keeping pace with demand
Keeping pace with demand

With SDMA, the idea is to use software-driven, beamforming antennas to enable multiple concurrent transmissions using the same frequency without interference, thus allowing for abundant spectrum reuse with higher intensity signals delivered to both stationary and mobile users. This way, mobile operators can continuously reuse the same band of spectrum, at the same time, within a given spatial region, and direct coverage to where it’s needed, when it’s needed.

Wireless carriers and OEMs are considering two technologies that enable electronic beamforming to 4G and 5G networks to meet the boundless growth in wireless data consumption: multiple-input and multiple-output (MIMO) and beamforming.

Early MIMO deployments in 4G systems have been both exciting and disappointing. Exciting because real network capacity gains have been shown. Disappointing because hardware costs have outpaced performance gains. That is, scaling and costs have been sharply sublinear. Despite impressive near-field spectral efficiency achievements like those from the University of Bristol in 2017 (130 bps/Hz), the lack of applicability to far-field systems such as cellular suggests that single user MIMO (SU-MIMO) has maxed out.


That leaves multi-user MIMO, where independent data beams are transmitted along diverse vectors. MU-MIMO is not without challenges, however. Practical MU-MIMO demos have shown that it is difficult to achieve linear capacity gain with the number of antenna/radio pairs used. In practice, the observed capacity gains have been more like one-tenth the number of radio/antenna combinations. The reason for this is obvious. Users are rarely spaced on an angularly uniform grid and so the use of so many radios results in overkill. Reducing the radio count does not help as the beams widen, thus exacerbating the problem.

More recently, attention has been drawn to MU-MIMO power consumption in cellular bands. Several researchers have pointed out that multi-GHz clockrate 8-bit ADCs (analog-to-digital converters) require significant power. For a 128-element MU-MIMO array this implies at least half a kilowatt of power needed just for the ADC components. The dissipated thermal load is substantial, which in turn drives cooling requirements, resulting in a heavy, bulky, power hungry, and costly system for MU-MIMO. It remains an open question if the cost of 128 radio chains is justifiable for 10× improvement. This situation does not get better in millimeter-wave bands where even larger arrays are needed for sufficient antenna gain while power amplifier efficiencies plummet to under 5% at 60 GHz.

Holographic beamforming

Holographic beamforming (HBF) is a new technique that is substantially different from conventional phased arrays or MIMO systems in that it uses software defined antennas (SDAs). It is the lowest C-SWaP (cost, size, weight, and power) dynamic beamforming architecture available.

HBFs are passive electronically steered antennas (PESAs) that use no active amplification internally. This leads to symmetric transmit and receive characteristics for HBF antennas.

Where phased-array type PESAs use discrete phase shifters to accomplish beam steering, HBFs perform the task using a direct amplitude hologram. Figure 2 shows two different digital overlays on the HBF representing the bias states of the varactors generating the hologram. The hologram in Figure 2a steers an RF beam in one direction while the hologram in Figure 2b steers the beam to broadside.


All components used in the construction of HBF antennas are high-volume, commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) parts. These incredibly low-cost control components take advantage of their widespread use in handsets, leading to economies of scale that silicon implementations can only dream of.

Equally important, the beam pointing function is accomplished using a large array of reverse biased varactor diodes. This leads to a nearly negligible power draw by the antenna’s pointing operations. Most HBFs need only USB or PoE (power over Ethernet) levels of power to operate. This then eliminates the need for active or passive cooling solutions and drives a significant size and weight reduction.

MIMO uses antenna/radio pairs to achieve beamforming with a very complex baseband unit coordinating the system. Holographic beamformers have simple control and use more densely packed antenna arrays. Roughly 2.5-3× as many elements are used by HBF systems. Fortunately for HBF, the control elements needed are trivially priced. These differences are summarized in Figure 3.
Summary of key differences among holographic, phased array and MIMO beamformers
Figure 3 Summary of key differences among holographic, phased array and MIMO beamformers

The benefits of beamforming will not materialize in the commercial market without the low C-SWaP architecture that only HBF provides. MIMO’s C-SWaP is exorbitantly high. HBF represents a breakthrough beamforming technology that finally provides a viable C-SWaP profile for commercial 4G and 5G networks.

Author: Eric Black

Posted in LTE

A Framework for Push-to-Talk Service Implementation using Voice over LTE (VoLTE) and its Key Features

With the recent advancement in wireless technology and enhanced smartphone capabilities, there has been an apparent increase in the utilisation of Push-To-Talk over Cellular (PTToC).  PTToC is a feature which can only be implemented when Voice-over-Long Term Evolution (VoLTE) capability is installed in the cellular networks. PTToChas wide coverage since it uses a cellular network. Moreover, PTToC is implemented as a data call. Therefore, calls can be made even when voice channels are congested. A pictorial representation of PTToC is shown in figure 1 below.


Figure 1: An illustration of PTToC using various cellular networks.

The Role of PTToC in Mission Critical Communications

With the advancement in telecommunications, the PTToC utility is currently being used in many commercial applications, for example, Public Safety networks and business critical sectors. This technology works in harmony with Mission-Critical applications offered by the Land Mobile Radio (LMR) networks. Today’s cutting edge communication techniques have enabled organisations to combine traditional voice communication with growing data sources in order to make better and faster decisions. PTToC is an essential component of LTE-based solutions. Moreover, encrypted Push-to-Talk over cellular offers enhanced features such as location tracking, group texting and image messaging for real-time communications.

Key PTToC Capabilities

PTToC offers multiple benefits for the agencies and organisations in commercial and business sectors by giving mission critical services. A brief description of the PTToC salient features is given below.

Instant Global Connectivity

Since PTToC is operating on modern digital cellular network standards, the entire world has now same network infrastructure. Public safety agencies can now connect any where around the globe in the same way as it would connect with the terrestrial-based trunked radio systems.

Fast and secure public safety networks

PTToChas connection speeds equivalent to land-mobile radio communication. Thus,byintegrating the benefits of PTToC and LMR, users can be facilitated with seamless mobile communication. With the introduction of encrypted PTToC, organisations are able to increase the number of users, in order to make them capable of communicating over a DMR network in a secure way.

Flexibility in critical communication services

This technology is well suited to a wide-range of devices. The user can use this technology with their choice of device. PTToC is very handy so that field workers can use it easily while working in remote areas and harsh environments. Group call in PTToC enables users to exchange information simultaneously with multiple users, and by this means all the group members are fully aware of the situation.

In summary, the rise in the usage off PTToC is due to the speed offered by 3G and 4G mobile networks and the introduction of smartphones. With the introduction of new applications for PTToC technology, it seems that PTToC communications will be an essential component of emerging LTE-based solutions.

To further know about implementation of VoLTE, Technologies, Challenges, and RCS for Public Service, you can join our  Voice over LTE (VoLTE) and RCS Certification Courses here.

Nokia Networks Advancing to LTE-A Carrier Aggregation Deployment

Nokia Networks is already globally known for its spectrum re-sharing, load balancing and traffic steering in different aspects. Now it is upgrading LTE-A technology globally that offers higher data rates to the subscribers and LTE operators.

Recently, in September 2015, the Nokia Networks have upgraded the Softbank’s commercial network by deploying LTE-A with faster data rates of up to 262.5 Mbps as claimed officially. The 1.4 times faster LTE-A technology has been facilitated with 3-band carrier aggregation on the commercial network.

By upgrading the LTE radio network to LTE Advanced Carrier Aggregation, the mobile network can now be benefitted with three component carriers besides the two aggregated bands. In carrier aggregation technology, 10 MHz spectrum sources are aggregated on the 900 MHz band as well as the 1800 MHz band. While, 15 MHz spectrum sources are aggregated on the 2100 MHz band. To derive the data rate even faster, a data highway of 35 MHz has been deployed in the network which offers about 262.5 Mbps downlink data rates to the subscribers.

The LTE-Advanced Carrier Aggregation technology evolves alongside the subscribers’ demands for higher data rates as well as the capability of their smartphones to support the band combinations of Carrier Aggregation. Today the user equipment are being built to aggregate up to three frequency bands, while some equipment have already been into the market which aggregate two frequency bands at a time. The new LTE-A software by Nokia Networks facilitates the subscribers to achieve the highest data rates that can be supported by their devices and smartphones. With this technology, any combination of the bands can be aggregated out of the three frequency bands.

So far we have discussed the advantages of the LTE-A Carrier Aggregation Technology for the users and subscribers. If we analyze the benefits of this technology from the operators’ point of view, we find out that the LTE operators will now able to drive the development of a wider range of smartphone ecosystem with the three frequency band aggregation technology.

Since SoftBank is considered as one of the top ten largest LTE Operators worldwide, this new frequency band combination will be widely installed in the markets around the globe. When the 900 MHz band for 2G is reframed to the 1800 MHz band for LTE, and the 2100 MHz band for 3G is reframed on the LTE band, the LTE operators get the advantage of higher data rates due to this carrier aggregation of three components.

The LTE-Advanced Carrier Aggregation technology deployment has opened new horizons in the communication technology and set a global example for LTE operators in achieving higher data rates for 4G.

To further know about LTE Network Planning, LTE-A Carrier Aggregation, Implementation, and Challenges you can join our  4G LTE Radio Network Planning and Optimization and 4G LTE-A Certification Courses here.

TETRA Radio Evolution Archive

TETRA Radio Evolution Path to 4G LTE

TETRA Radio evolution to 4G LTE is essential in order to enhance the mission critical emergency communication services. A framework for smooth transition of TETRA RADIO to LTE is shown below.

tetra radio evolution to LTE

For smooth transition of TETRA Radio to LTE, initially the critical voice and data messages will run in the narrowband TETRA network, while the high speed non-critical yet secured data will run in the commercial LTE broadband network. A technical architecture of TETRA Radio smooth transition to LTE is shown below:

TETRA Radio Evolution to TETRA 3 Broadband TETRA

Most recently, TETRA standardization bodies have identified user requirements for broadband mission critical data applications which include transfer of multimedia video and photo transfer, location data,  office applications, upload and download of operational information and online database enquiries. As a result, ETSI TC TETRA has initiated a new work item to expand the TETRA standard for transfer of broadband packet data which is scheduled until the end of 2016. Even the whole TETRA industry is extremely uncertain in the moment whether TETRA is already a legacy technology and will shortly be replaced by mission critical LTE.

tetra radio evolution training

UK & USA plan to replace TETRA with LTE until 2016 for Critical Communications & Public Safety

Within the next three years, LTE could replace the TETRA system that currently provides mission-critical communications for public-safety agencies and other government organizations in Great Britain, an official said yesterday.

Since 2005, mission-critical communications have been transmitted over the Airwave system—a privately owned TETRA network that covers 99% of the land mass and 98% of the population in Great Britain (England, Scotland and Wales). It serves “all three emergency services and other national users” that pay subscriptions fees, according to Gordon Shipley of the United Kingdom Home Office. Although the performance of the TETRA system is “very good,” it is “extremely expensive” for users, particularly when compared to the plummeting per-minute costs of commercial wireless air time, he said.

In addition, the contracts associated with the Airwave system are scheduled to expire from 2016 to 2020, so the UK Home Office is looking for alternatives, Shipley said.

“Because [the Airwave network is] a TETRA-based system, it’s narrowband data,” Shipley said during the session. “One of the things which has become clear is that the emergency services are now increasingly going broadband services, which can provide even higher speeds. And we need to provide a better, more reliable and secure service for broadband, as well as narrowband voice. So, my program’s responsibility is to find a replacement for critical voice, as well broadband data services, and to do so cost effectively.

“We think, in the UK, that 4G LTE promises significant benefits over the current service that we buy.”

UK officials will conduct a supplier conference next month to get input on the notion of having a public-safety LTE system operational in December 2016, with the entire system transitioned to the 4G technology by 2020, Shipley said.

This development could have an impact in the United States, which is trying to get 3GPP—the global standards body for LTE—to include public-safety requirements such as mission-critical voice in future revisions of LTE that can be implemented in the nationwide broadband network being built by FirstNet, according to Andrew Thiessen, who helps lead the standards effort for Public Safety Communications Research (PSCR), a unit of the U.S. Dept. of Commerce.

“I think it’s imperative that everyone in the audience understand that the United States isn’t the only country that’s actually looking forward to LTE,” Thiessen said during the session. “In many ways, the United Kingdom is actually working faster than FirstNet, looking at a 2016 date for mission-critical voice.”

Of course, one of the key requirements for public safety is mission-critical, push-to-talk voice. A draft set of requirements for push-to-talk over LTE has been distributed to officials in other countries, and the initial response has been positive, Thiessen said.

“We’re actually getting pretty close,” he said. “The comments that we’re getting back are more about clarification of what a particular sentence meant and less so about, ‘Well, we view things very differently.’ Public safety operates fairly similar globally, so push to talk is push to talk, whether it’s TETRA or P25 or whether it’s the United Kingdom or the United States—the expectations of the user community are very similar.”

A Roadmap For Cellular Networks Evolution Towards LTE-Advance Networks

lte 5g

What is 4G LTE-Advanced?

LTE-Advanced is the next level mobile broadband LTE technology. It is the faster version of the already fast wideband 4G. Some major networks in the UK and in the United States prominently, Sprint and T-mobile which are currently operating in the United States have already upgraded to LTE-Advanced. Wireless specialists have declared LTE-Advanced “True 4G” because it meets the specifications set by International Telecommunication Union’s (ITU) for 4G wireless systems. The goal is to provide a communication system which not only provides faster data speeds but also supports many more devices online at the same time with reduced latency. In order to meet the goal, the network providers are continuing to evolve the current LTE standard that is leading towards the 5G standards, which is known as LTE-Advanced Pro. As a result, we will get higher network capacity, more consistent connection,and cheaper data rates. A timeline for the progress in LTE standards towards 5G is shown in Figure 1 below.

lte 5g

Figure 1: Timeline for advancement in LTE-Advanced towards 5G.


How fast is LTE-Advance?

The main objective of LTE-Advanced is to add the IMT-Advanced functionality while maintaining the compatibility with LTE user equipment. It is important because if not enabled, the early adopters would be penalized when the carrier is upgraded to LTE-Advanced on the infrastructure side. LTE-Advanced is designed to provide the data rate up to 300 Mbps for downloading and 75 Mbps for uploads. Moreover, LTE-Advanced includes some new transmission protocols and multiple-antenna schemes (MIMO) which enable smoother handoffs between cells and increase throughput at cell edges. A graphical illustration of data rates of different releases of is shown in figure 2 below.

lte 5g

Figure 2:   A Bar graph showing the comparison of data rates among different versions of LTE.

What LTE-Advanced adds to LTE?

LTE-Advanced is a speedy network. Theoretical peak download speeds are up to 300 Mbps while the standard data rate of 4G LTE is 150 Mbps. Other factors such as the type of device, proximity to a 4G mast and number of user on the network have a drastic affect on the network speed.

Moreover, LTE networks mainly use frequency reuse factor of one to maximize utilization of the assigned bandwidth. LTE uses the heterogeneous networks where the cells are of different size referred to as Macro, Micro, Pico and Femtocells. The actual cell size depends not only on eNB power but also on antenna position, as well as the environment of the location such as rural or urban, indoor or outdoor. An illustration of a heterogeneous network is shown in the figure below.
lte 5g

Figure 3: An illustration of a heterogeneous network with large and small cells.


In LTE-Advance, the technology of heterogeneous network is amalgamated with Carrier Aggregation, one of the big enablers behind faster data speeds. Carrier Aggregation enables the mobile device to receive several 4G signals of different frequencies all at once.  For example, with LTE-Advance, we can receive an 1800 MHz and 80 MHz signal at the same time. Five component carriers, each having a bandwidth up to 20 MHz are combined to fom a data pipe of up to 100 MHz of bandwidth. But in LTE-Advanced Pro release the number of component carriers will increase to 32 different carriers.


Figure 4: Illustration of Carrier Aggregation in LTE-Advanced network.

Besides Carrier Aggregation, another feature which distinguishes LTE advanced from its predecessors is Multiple Input, Multiple Output (MIMO). MIMO allows base stations and user equipment to send and receive data using multiple antennas. It serves two purposes.

  1. In noisy radio environment, the multiple transmitters and receivers function together to focus the radio signals in a single direction. This beam forming feature amplifies the strength of received signal without increasing the transmission power.
  2. It is also used to increase data rates and the number of users for a limited spectrum. Currently, LTE supports MIMO, but only for downlink. It allows four transmitters in the base stations and four receivers in the handset. While in LTE-Advanced, up to eight antennas are used for downlink and up to four pairs for uplink.


LTE-Advance User Equipment Categories

In order to utilize the services of LTE-Advanced, you might need to get a new phone because, the standard 4G phones are not compatible with LTE-Advance. Many newly introduced mobile phones such as Samsung Galaxy S6, iPhone 6s, HTC One M9, Sony Xperia Z5, LG G4 and Microsoft Lumia 950 support it. Hence, over time, smarter phones will be introduced with LTE-Advanced support and as it becomes more widespread it should start filtering down to low-end devices too.

Towards next-generation Cellular Networks

Telecommunication is a fast evolving industry. The term 5G is abbreviated as Fifth Generation of mobile wireless systems. It is expected to be a big step as it promises to give high data rates along with IoT and other cutting-edge services. The specifications are still under development and it is expected to be deployed by 2020. The main goal of 5G is to receive data speeds up to 1 Gbps, which is a mind blogging number.

To further know about LTE Network Planning, LTE-A Carrier Aggregation, Implementation, and Challenges you can join our  4G LTE Radio Network Planning and Optimization and 4G LTE-A Certification Courses here