How will the transportation system benefit from IoT-enabled platooning?

Platooning is an innovative transport system where trucks can drive closely together – one after another – using a common communication system based on smart technology. This could lead to benefits for the transport system with regards to safety, efficiency and the environment.

Ericsson and Scania have started a collaborative research effort to accelerate the connectivity of commercial vehicles and infrastructure. Truck platooning is just one example of this and we have assessed it in terms of the sustainability impact. We wanted to know how – and to what extent – does ICT have the potential to improve the impact of truck platooning when it comes to safety and efficiency?

In a more basic form, truck platooning could be based on an Adaptive Cruise Control system, comprising onboard radar and other electronic equipment here referred to as conventional technology. This is where each truck optimizes its behavior adding Vehicle-to-Vehicle (V2V) communication enabled by ICT. The aim is to enable further fuel savings and reduce in carbon dioxide emissions through shorter distances and associated platooning.

Conventional technology (Scenario A), based on Adaptive Cruise Control, radar and other electronic equipment, can be used to drive in platoons for 25% of the full distance. The potential fuel reduction is calculated to be 2% based on Scania test track driving. In a theoretical scenario where platooning based on conventional technology would be used during the whole distance the fuel reduction potential would be 8%.

In a theoretical scenario with V2V communication, corresponding to 100% of the distance be driven in a platoon, the fuel saving potential is estimated to be 12% according to Scania for the investigated set-up (compared to the 8% for conventional technology). In practice, it is unlikely that the full distance would be suitable for platooning. However, V2V communication enables a more extensive use of platooning than the solution based on conventional technology. We thus assume that 50% of the whole distance is driven in platooning mode (scenario B). The overall 6%saving, represent an increase with 4% units compared to the 2% saving without the use of ICT. This translates into a reduction of 4 tonne CO2 per truck and year. The non-platooning reference scenario is based on an average truck in the EU that travels about 100 000 km/year with a fuel consumption of about 0.25 l/km which corresponds to emissions of about 66 ton CO2/year. A 4 tonne saving in CO2 could be compared to the average annual CO2 emissions per citizen in the EU of 7.4 tonne in 2012 (including emissions from transportation).

To understand the net impact of V2V communication, the additional saving enabled by it is compared to the additional footprint of the communication solution which gives an increase of 0,14% per truck (a factor of only approx. 1:30 compared to the estimated saving), indicating a substantial net reduction in carbon emissions.

How will the transportation system benefit from IoT-enabled platooning
How will the transportation system benefit from IoT-enabled platooning

From social perspective, truck platooning could have a vast range of impacts, from driver satisfaction due to common breaks along the roadside and more social interaction, to feeling passive during the drive and possible stress due to the threat of job losses due to automation. Safety could potentially also be increased or decreased depending on the perspective, i.e. the trucker driver or the surrounding traffic.

Platooning is not yet deployed and wide-scale tests, technical feasibility and upscaling are under development out to 2020. In order to use public road networks, further tests and legislation is necessary to prove safety and reliability. A greater level of automation and legislation for a broad commercial application with automated driverless trailing vehicles is estimated for 2030 and beyond.

Author: Sepideh Matinfar

How Telecom Operators Can Help Industries to design innovative IoT Applications for Smart Cities?

Internet-of-Things(IoT), a technology which connects objects to the internet. Cisco has anticipated that by 2020, IoT will be consisting of 50 billion devices connected to the internet. As a result, there will be 6 devices per person. It is expected that IoT will fully transform our economy, society and standards of living.  Businesses and enterprises strive hard to bring products to the markets more frequently, adapt themselves to regulatory requirements, and most importantly business leaders tend to innovate persistently. With a large number of mobile staff, growing customers and changing supply chain demand, IoT can help businesses and entrepreneurs to generate large revenue in business. Figure 1 below is depicting the connection of IoT devices to the cloud server in 5G.


Figure 1: IoT devices connected to cloud server using a 5G cellular network. [Courtesy of intel].

Only those companies will be able to maintain their position among their competitors that not only embrace IoT but also use it to transform their business. By integrating IoT into business operations, products and customer interactions, business leaders can build new business models and foundation of values. McKinsey estimates that by 2025, businesses will be able to generate revenue of approximately $11 trillion per year through incorporating IoT applications and products.

Businesses are now transforming their processes, operations and business models to benefit from the latest technologies. Smart cities, connected utilities, smart transportation, connected factories, smart health, smart grid and connected miles are few names of the result of this evolution. All industries are considering IoT a breakthrough technology in order to help them optimize their business, enter new markets and build a good customer relationship. Many industry experts, like IDC, estimates that businesses will spend over $20 trillion in the next four years to realize the potential of IoT. An illustration of IoT deployed in smart city verticals.


Figure 2: An illustration of Internet-of-Things applications Smart Cities.

The revolution of IoT may have begun but it isn’t implemented to the full scale yet. There is still plenty of time before its transformational powers will be fully felt. A number of technical, economical, and regulatory perceptions still need to be addressed. There are some companies out there who need to do something but are not sure about how. According to Harvard Business Review and Verizon statistics, it is concluded that less than 10 percent of companies have deployed IoT initiatives. Furthermore, only a small minority which is 56 percent have the proper strategy for IoT.

According to recent research conducted by Cisco about ICT companies and decision makers concluded that the top three challenges for implementing IoT initiatives in their business were: (i) Data Privacy; (ii) Standardization of IoT protocols and intra-operability among different business systems; and (iii) Design cost.

IoT supplier market is currently very fragmented with a massive amount of big and small companies providing single pieces of IoT implementation devices, applications, and solutions. As a result, making it more challenging for the companies to meet the demands of customer needs.

To further know about Application of IOT and SON for Smart Cities, Technologies, and Challenges, you can join our Smart Cities Essential Courses here.

A Framework for Nokia AirScale Cloud RAN Technology

telxperts cellular data

With the introduction of state-of-the-art technologies, the mobile industry is going through a radical transformation. The network is expanding day by day as a result of smart cities, mobile living, the Internet of Things (IOT) with a large number of sensors, connected vehicles, e-health, and the list goes on. In order to meet the demands of the growing trend of Internet of Things (IoT) and increasingly high customer expectations, operators need to formulate a new approach towards building a network that will be able to deliver extreme low latency and massive broadband to meet widely diverse uses.

AirScale is a modernised and up-to-date technology which redefines the way radio networks are built. It is a complete package, which offers complete radio access generation running on traditional Distributed Radio Access Network (RAN) sites as well as centralised and Cloud RAN. AirScale technology is set to simultaneously run all radio technologies such as LTE-Advanced, LTE-Advanced Pro, TDD-LTE, FDD-LTE, 2G and 3G on a single base station as a Single RAN, thereby integrating carrier-grade Wi-Fi access, making itself 5G-ready and thus offering an unlimited capacity. Apart from this, it utilises 60 percent less energy compared to the Flex radio access platform, which is still widely used for energy efficiency purposes.

telxperts cellular data

Figure 1: An illustration of AirScale technology used in cellular network.

AirScale also provides a way to close the gap between the IT and Telco worlds. AirScale Cloud RAN is running on the same servers as Mobile Edge Computing (MEC). As a result, interfaces such as Application Programming are opened up to a number of new applications, services, and plug-ins integrated into the RAN. Rapid delivery of software is provided by Cloud RAN on an IT platform, bringing a new level of agility and performance to networks. The President of Mobile Networks of Nokia expressed his point of view regarding this technology as, “The world will witness immense changes over the next few years. Broadband traffic will continue to surge as people go beyond video and take advantage of augmented and virtual reality. The Internet of Things will see billions of devices connected, and 5G will enable new scenarios such as Industry 4.0, smart cities, e-health and mobile living. Nokia AirScale is designed from the ground up for this new era, while also introducing ground-breaking cloud-based capabilities.”

The capabilities of AirScale were demonstrated at Mobile World Conference (MWC) 2016, where operators were able to get their hands on the AirScale base stations and watch it run 5G with 5Gbps data rates and under 1ms latency. With its high performance and flexibility, AirScale will be able to support wide ranging applications such as ultra-reliable communications for autonomous vehicles, ultra-low latency connectivity for synchronising industrial robotics, new live broadcasting services at large events and much more.

To further know about LTE E-UTRAN Signaling and Air Interface, LTE-A Carrier Aggregation, Implementation, and Challenges you can join our 4G LTE E-UTRAN Architecture, Signaling and Air Interface and 4G LTE-A Certification Courses here.

How Smart Transportation can revolutionize Smart Cities?

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World population is increasing rapidly. Due to this tremendous rise in population, the cities all around the world are facing complex challenges regarding urban infrastructure planning, governance, and transportation infrastructure. Airports, railways, ports, bridges, mass transits, highways and the networks that they are connected to, then all form infrastructure of the transportation. Commuters now prefer public transportation like rails and buses over roads.

In order to facilitate the customers, the public transportation systems and the station hubs are improved. Full connectivity is what the customer demands, therefore, transportation system should ensure that devices and people should be connected to the network. However, as the number of devices connected to the transportation ecosystems increases, the probability of cyber-attack also increases, making the transportation ecosystem more vulnerable to cyber-attacks. An illustration of vehicle-to-vehicle transportation is shown in Figure 1 below.

smart transportation

Figure 1: A visual representation of vehicle-to-vehicle communication in smart cities.

Internet of Everything (IoE) aims to bring digital revolution by deploying smart roads, smart rails, smart buses, smart airports and smart pots globally. Enhancements in the smart transportation systems will result in high mobility along with an improved and secured transportation services for the people. Transport system administrators and organization are adopting digital strategies which will help in the provision of quality transportation services, improved productivity, enhanced passenger experience and will also help in generating good revenue changing.

The smart transportation system is evolving day by day to provide seamless passenger services. Smart transportation is aiming to implement cutting edge technologies like electric mobility, car sharing, Mobility-as-a-Service (MaaS), and a system based on a demand-response approach in order to optimize the whole transportation system.

If you want to go for a vacation you do not have to fret about anything. Just pack your stuff and head towards the airport. As you are going towards the airport you observe that the traffic on the road is organized. It is because the transportation authorities are continuously monitoring the traffic and are attentive to keep traffic organized and ensure transits run smoothly. Like Utah’s Department Transportation, they deployed some digital transformation in the typical methodology in order to improve the infrastructure planning process and management of the highways.

As our digital citizen is heading towards the airport in his car, he gets an alert on his smartphone about the slow traffic ahead, which is because of a construction project already planned. Our digital citizen would not have to worry as he can switch from the route through mapped view of the construction site and seamlessly go ahead. Like other eighty percent of drivers in Texas, our digital citizen was also delighted with the anticipatory notifications that made him able for proactive traffic avoidance.

While our digital citizen arrived at the airport, the most dreadful part is yet to come which is, to wait in long queues at the checking points and counters for hours. Except the digital citizen, he doesn’t have to worry. Some airports like Copenhagen Airport are deploying smart technology to continuously watch and avoid passenger congestion, allowing more time to relax instead of waiting for their turn in the long queues. An example of IoT applications implemented at an airport is shown in the figure below.


Figure 2: Role of IoT applications at world’s biggest travel hubs.

Following smooth and a serene flight, our digital citizen has reached the holiday spot. He hops on the train, to reach his final destination.

Some cities like Dubai, are implementing digital strategies to fulfil the increasing transport requirements as with each passing day a large number of people are turning towards public transportation. Our citizen didn’t face any inconvenience like accidents and other complications. Advanced systems are deployed to avoid accidents via vehicle-to-vehicle and vehicle-to-infrastructure. He is feeling relaxed as the smart transportation system is reliable and clean trains, simple ticketing procedures and has plentiful timetables. Upon reaching the final destination like other 90 percent of Seoul tourists, our digital customer is pleased with his overall travel experience.

Cities around the world are now looking for ways to fulfil their transportation requirements and expanding their transportation networks in order to enhance their corporation and interconnection. This development is making public transportation as well as mass transits, main artery of the smart cities technology, which aims to improve quality of life of the residents in parallel with supporting economic development, attracting business and workforce talent.

In short, smart transportation is considered a key factor against the challenges faced by the urban planners and city infrastructure planners to fulfil the requirements of the increasing number of mega cities in both developed and developing cities around the globe in order to maintain safety and smooth traffic flow.

To further know about Application of Smart Transportation in Smart Cities, Challenges, and Smart Transportation Technologies, you can join our Smart Cities Essential Courses here.

Internet-of-Everything and Smart-cities Archive

Internet of Things (IoT) Overview

The Internet of Things (IoT) is the interconnection of uniquely identifiable embedded computing devices within the exisitng internet infrastructure. Internet of Things ”means“ a world-wide network of interconnected objects uniquely addressable, based on standard communication protocols.

intenret of things

The new rule for the future is going to be, “anything that can be connected, will be connected.”  But why on earth would you want so many connected devices talking to each other? To increase efficiency, energy, time, cost, resources and sustainable life.

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IoT Protocol Stack

iot architecture

Wireless Technologies for IoT

iot training course

IoT/IoE Protocols

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IoT Devices Gateway Capabilities

ioe online training

IoT Data Management Capabilities

iot data intelligence

IoT Context Processing & Analysis

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IoT Cloud Architecture

Iot cloud

IoT Cloud Data Acquisition

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IoT Evolution & Market Trends

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IoT Smart Grid

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To further know about IOT Application for Smart Cities, Smart Grid Challenges, and Smart Cities Technologies, you can join our Smart Cities Essential Courses here.

How to build IoT Networks?

With the introduction of Internet of Things (IoT); networks will be obliged to manage large numbers of heterogeneous devices. There are many ways to connect devices directly to the 5G systems. Moreover, they can also connect with the help of capillary networks using short range radio to extend the 5G network reach. Different radios should be served in the same IoT platform in order to manage efficiently. Smart technology, when deployed, can increase the value of that particular place, for instance, a smart home, a smart office building, a smart bus and so on. According to Ericsson mobility report, until 2021 we will have 15 billion devices will be connected to the network. Some of the devices will be connected to the cellular network while a large part will be accessing radio technologies.

capillary networks in deployment of IoT

If we want to manage those devices in the similar fashion as that of mobile phones, then we need to use Capillary Gateways. Capillary Gateways acts as a bridge and connects other networks with the 5G system. Capillary Gateways are fixed installations, but a mobile phone can be used to connect to the things nearby. In order to install, configure and manage those devices, the devices need to be automated. By automating the device we mean the system needs to adjust whenever devices are added, lost or moving.

capillary networks in IoT networks

It is concluded that connection to the network plays a vital role in the deployment of IoT. Capillary networks are a smart way to connect the billions of things and devices that need connectivity. In order to optimize the network usage, it automatically manages the connectivity between devices and gateways in the network. This technology supports short-range radio technologies, which are easy to deploy with different topologies, such as star and mesh for example Bluetooth, WiFi and 802.15.4. Moreover, the modern Bluetooth Low Energy mesh technology can be used for capillary connectivity.

We provide an extensive training course about IoT networking. This course covers major aspects of IoT, Machine to Machine (M2M) Communication and Big Data Analytic techniques for IoT.

About Author:

Dr. Hafiz Yasar Lateef – one of the founding members of TelXperts – has several years of experience on Internet of Things (IoT), smart cities, big data analytics and smart cities verticals. He is a Member of IEEE Communications Society and frequently features as a keynote speaker at various international conferences and workshops. His expertise encompass Internet of Things, Big Data Analytics, LTE radio network planning and optimization, Small cells & DAS planning & Optimization, Self-Organizing Networks (SON) and Green cellular networks. Dr. Hafiz Yasar Lateef’s Biography has been featured on Bristol Who’s Who famous personalities registry for his excellent research work in the field of Telecommunication. His work on the areas of MIMO techniques for wireless networks, Green Cellular Networks and Self-Organizing cellular networks have already found their way into telecommunication standards. He has authored and co-authored numerous international journals and conference papers in the field of LTE/LTE-Advanced wireless networks.

Dr. Yasar holds a Doctorate degree in the field of Telecommunications from University of Leeds, UK. He has participated in various international projects on future wireless networks in collaboration with ZTE Corporation, Texas A&M, Politecnico Di Torino Italy, King’s College London, CTTC Spain and CCSR University of Surrey. In the past, he held various roles at ZTE Corporation, University of Leeds, UK, University of Bedfordshire, UK, Qatar University, QMIC and Texas A&M, Curtin University, Australia.